- displace, displacement: to move physically out of position <a floating object displaces water>
- rotate: to turn about an axis or a center : REVOLVE; especially : to move in such a way that all particles follow circles with a common angular velocity about a common axis
- revolve: to move in a curved path round a center or axis; to turn or roll round on an axis
- twist: to pull off, turn, or break by torsion; to cause to move with a turning motion; to form into a spiral shape
- torsion: the twisting or wrenching of a body by the exertion of forces tending to turn; turning one end or part about a longitudinal axis while the other is held fast or turned in the opposite direction; also, the state of being twisted
- twining: to coil about a support; to stretch or move in a sinuous manner
- range: The perimeter/limit of an action in taijiquan practice. For example, the hand can only travel in the range above the knee and below the eyebrows (with a few exceptions).
- coil: transitive senses: to wind into rings or spirals; to roll or twist into a shape resembling a coil; intransitive senses: to move in a circular or spiral course; to form or lie in a coil
- spiral: the path of a point in a plane moving around a central point while continuously receding from or approaching it; a three-dimensional curve (as a helix) with one or more turns about an axis
- helix: i. something spiral in form: as a coil formed by winding wire around a uniform tube; ¡i. a curve traced on a cylinder or cone by the of a point crossing its right sections at a constant oblique angle
- drill: to bore or drive a hole in some object
- grind: i. to reduce to powder or small fragments by friction (as in a mill or with the teeth); to wear down, polish, or sharpen by friction <grind an axe>; ¡i to press together with a rotating motion <grind the teeth>; to rub or press harshly
- smear: to spread over a surface; to obliterate, obscure, blur, blend, wipe out, or defeat by or as if by smearing
- shearing: i. to subject to a shear force; to cause (as a rock mass) to move along the plane of contact; to cut through something with or as if with a sharp instrument; ¡i. to become divided under the action of a shear <the bolt may shear off>
- centre of mass: point representing the mean position of the matter in a body. Synonyms: centroid
- vector of force: force is by definition a vector possessing direction and magnitude
- torque: a twisting force; torsion
- moment of force: torque
- couple of force: two forces acting in different directions on the same body, tending to cause turning, , torsion, or shearing
- load distribution: distribution of forces with a body. May be distribution of compressive (squeezing) forces or tensile (pulling) forces
- flexion: a bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint — compare with extension, its opposite; a forward raising of the arm or leg by a movement at the shoulder or hip joint
- extension: an unbending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint — compare with flexion, its opposite
- tensegrity (tensile integrity) structure: a structure where interconnected tensile and compressive load distribution is used to create great strength. The compression elements of the construct ‘float’ in a continuous tension network, e.g. a bicycle wheel with steel spokes (and not a wagon wheel with wooden spoke, which is compressive); the human shoulder girdle and attached musculature and connective tissue; the human spine, ribs and attached musculature connective tissue; the human tailbone to hip region and attached musculature and connective tissue. The physics used for the analysis of tensegrity structures is not the same as the physics used for the analysis of primarily compressive structures (see: http://www.biotensegrity.com/ for a very, very interesting set of articles)
- levers: all levers are simple machines with three parts – fulcrum, loads (resistance and effort), and rod or beam
- 1st class lever: A 1st Class lever has the fulcrum in the middle, the resistance load at one end, and the effort at the other end; e.g. teeter-totter
- 2nd class lever: A 2nd Class lever has the resistance load in the middle, the fulcrum at one end, and the effort at the other end; e.g. wheel Barrow
- 3rd class lever: A 3rd Class lever has the effort in the middle, the at fulcrum one end, and the resistance load at the other end; e.g. lower arm
- rocking: swaying back and forth; to moving back and forth in or as if in a cradle or a teeter totter or rocking chair
Number 4 of the of taijiquan. It refers to a force obtained by pushing and pressing with the palms. Normally it is a downward force. It’s the central energy applied downwards.
- Ba hui:
Acc. point on the crown of the head
- Bu Fa:
Stepping exercises or footwork.
Number 5 of the of taijiquan. It refers to a force exerted by quick grab and pull. Normally the force is applied to the opponent’s wrist but extended to the foot. It is the central energy of applied to backward down.
- Chan si gong, also spelled as Chan Si Gung:
Reeling silk skill. Silk reeling exercises are a central part of Chen Style Xinyi Hunyuan Taijiquan. They are practiced as foundation for the development of proper taiji skills that involve the .
- Chaquan: (查拳), sometimes pronounced Zhaquan (after the sir name Zha of a muslim person who created this style), is a style of Chinese martial arts. It belongs to external style in the wushu category.
Chaquan features graceful movements, acrobatic aerial maneuvers, and is a kind of changquan (長拳), or longfist, a type of Chinese martial art known for extended, long movements. Chaquan also includes a large range of weapons. Chaquan was known for being practiced by many Chinese Muslims in China. One famous master of Chaquan was the famous Wang Ziping (王子平), who was known for his great strength. Chaquan was a strong influence in creating the modern wushu changquan style often seen in movies and tournaments.
- Chen Style:
Original style of taijiquan based on creations by Chen Wangting and further developed by following generations of the Chen Family in Chen Jiagou Village, Wenxian County, Henan Province, China. It was spread to the outside of the village by Chen Fake in 1928 when he moved to Beijing that year. Currently proponents of this style are of Beijing, 18th generation grand master, and many 19th, and 20th generation masters of this art.
- Chen Family Taijiquan:
Refers to the taijiquan practiced within the Chen Family members of Chen Jiagou, Wen County, Henan Province, China.
People outside of the family who directly learned this style from Chen Family members can only use the term “Chen Style Taijiquan”.
- Chen, Fake:
-1957. 17th Generation Grand Master of Chen Family Taijiquan. Accredited for teaching the Chen Style Taijiquan to the outside of the Chen Village in 1928 when he moved to Beijing to teach. He was the president of the Beijing Martial Arts Society. Known as “Taiji, the One and Only” in the martial art world in Beijing during his time. Undefeated during his teaching career in Beijing. Major disciples are: Hong Junsheng, Gu Liuxin, Yang Xiaolou, Xu Rusheng, Chen Zhaokui (son), Lei Muni, Tian Xiuchen, and .
Same as qi.
- Chin na:
See Qin na below in this glossary.
Refers to the general area in the lower abdomen, beneath the navel and about one-third of the way in the abdominal cavity.
There are five Dantians in the body: (1) the upper Dantian roughly on the forehead between the eyes; (2) the middle Dantian three inches below the navel which is also generally referred to as Dantian; (3) the lower Dantian inside Huiyin; (4) the front Dantian in the position of the middle Dantian but in the front part of the body and (5) the rear Dantian which is in the position of the middle Dantian on the back of the body in the area of the kidneys.
Dantian is generally considered the place where vital energy qi is cultivated and stored. It corresponds to the element of earth.
Also known as Dantian.
- Dao yin:
Concentrated exertion of inner force.
- Dou jin:
Taijiquan shaking/explosive power. A major method of issuing power in the Chen Style. It is also characteristic of Chen Style Taijiquan.
Hunyuan Taijiquan retains this special power but uses it rarely. /ex
- Er lu:
Second routine. Refers to the form of the Chen Style Taijiquan.
- Fajin: Also spelled as fajing.
Issue strength. Sudden and violent releases of power is a hallmark of Chen Style Taijiquan.
On the nape, below the occipital bone, on the level of Fengfu (DU16), in the depression between the upper ends of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.
- Feng Zhiqiang: An eighteenth generation grand master of Chen Style Taijiquan. He was a disciple of grand master Chen Fake of Chen Family Taijiquan and grand master Hu Yaozhen of Liuhe Xinyi Quan. He is the creator of the Chen Style Xinyi Hunyuantaiji System, a style of Taijiquan that combines Chen Style with qigong training.
- Gang Rou Xiang Ji:
Hardness and softness complement each other.
- Gong fu:
High level of skill. sometimes referred to as martial arts.
On the dorsum of the hand, between the 1st and 2nd metacarpal bones, and on the radial side of the midpoint of the 2nd metacarpal bone.
- Hu lei jia:
Thunder style. Also derived from Chen Style.
- Hu, Yaozhen: Famous Xinyi Liuhe Quan Grand Master. He was both a martial artist and a qigong healer. He worked in a Western country run hospital in Beijing. He was the vice president of the Beijing Martial Arts Society (Chen Fake was the president). He reached the highest level in Qigong and was termed the father of modern qigong in China. He was one of the people responsible for the use of the term qigong.
- Huiyin: The point between the rectum and the genitalia.
- Hunyuan Qigong: The special qigong system developed by Grandmaster . This system is especially effective for raising the skill level of all martial artists and for health. The main source of its development was from Grandmaster Hu Yaozhen, qigong and Chinese medicine master and Feng’s mentor. Hu was regarded as the father of modern Qigong in China.
- Ji ben gong:
Third of the 13 postures of taijiquan. An offensive force transmitted by following the opponent’s energy. Actually means to squeeze. It is the application of forward. Sticking forward.
On the shoulder, directly above the nipple, at the midpoint of the line connecting Dazhui (DU 14) and the acromion.
- Jing luo:
Main and collateral channels where vital energy circulates.
Number 8 of the of taijiquan. A force exerted by the shoulder or back. Kao energy requires that the whole body be used as one unit. It is all over the body. Hitting like a mountain.
- Lao gong:
At the centre of the palm, between the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones, but close to the latter, and in the part touching the tip of the middle finger when a fist is made.
- Lao jia:
- Laoshi: teacher, commonly used in China because the modern society frowns upon traditional relationships.
- Last name + shifu: refers to any student showing respect to a teacher. Does not show relationship.
- Lie: Also spelled as Lieh
Number 6 of the of taijiquan. Usually is a technique that causes a split in direction of energy. Bone breaking. applied to break something.
Same as Lie.
Second of the of taijiquan. A sticking energy towards self and the side. applied towards self and the side.
- Nei gong:
Internal training. Sometimes synonymous with the term Qigong.
- Pao chui:
Number 1 of the of taijiquan. Ward off energy. It is considered the central energy of the 8 different energies in Taiji. It is present everywhere in taiji practice.
It is also a technique of energy going upwards.
Vital internal energy.
- Qigong: A special form of exercise that is aimed at bringing out the inner energy of a person. There are many different styles of Qigong. Qigong is also divided into Taoist Meditation Qigong, Medical Qigong and Martial Art Qigong. Chen Style Xinyi Hunyuan Qigong system belongs to martial arts qigong.
On the lower back, below the spinous process of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, 1.5 cun lateral to the posterior midline.
- Qin na:
Capturing technique; joint locking.
- Qing gong:
Fist; martial art.
On the chest, in the 4th intercostal space, at the centre of the nipple, 4 cun lateral to the anterior midline.
On the medial side of the leg, 3 cun above the tip of teh medial malleolus, posterior to the medial border of the tibia.
On the lower back, below the spinous process of the 1st lumbar bertebra, 1.5 cun lateral to the posterior midline.
- Shen Fa:
Taijiquan body exercises.
On the lower back, below the spinous process of the 2nd lumbar vertebra, 1.5 cun lateral to the posterior midline.
Master’s senior brother
Is reserved for master-disciple relationship.
Master’s junior brother
Means senior brother.
- Shousanli: On the radial side of the dorsal surface of the forearm and on the line connecting Yangxi (LI 5) and Quchi (LI 11), 2 cun below the cubital crease.
- Silk Reeling:
A series of exercises designed to promote a special type of energy in Chen Style Taijiquan. Some masters simply call this type of exercises basic training or . It is found in all styles of Taijiquan but more prominently in Chen Style Taijiquan.
Also known as chan si gong.
- Sun style:
Major style created by Sun Lutang (1861-1932).
- Tui shou:
Taijiquan push hand.
- Thirteen Postures:
, Lu, Ji, An, Cai, Lie, Zhou, Kao, Jin, Tui, Gu, Pan, Ding. (Ward Off, Roll Back, Press, Push, Grab, Yank, Elbow Strike, Shoulder Strike, Step Forward, Step Backward, Turn Left, Turn Right, Center Equilibrium.)
- Three Jiao:
The Triple Burner System. It is a functional system on the back of the body, with no apparent physical body parts.
- Tie sha zhang:
The ability to feel, sense and anticipate the opponents next move.
- Tu na:
Deep breathing exercise.
On the dorsal side of the forearm and on the line connecting Yangchi (SJ 4) and the tip of the olecranon, 2 cun proximal to the dorsal crease of the wrist, between the radius and ulna.
At the midpoint of the popliteal crease, between the tendons of the biceps muscle of the and the semitendinous muscle.
- Wu shu:
- Wu style
Major style created by Wu Jianquan (1870-1942).
- Wuji: Literally means “No Polarity”. It is the state when the universe was not yet born. It is a state of emptiness and nothingness.
- Wuu style: Also known as Wu/Hao Style.
Major style created by Wuu Yuxiang (1812-1880).
- Xiao jia:
- Xin jia:
- Yang style:
Major style created by Yang Luchan (1799-1872).
- Yi lu:
In the nasolabial groove, beside the midpoint of the lateral border of the nasal ala.
On the sole, in the depression appearing on the anterior part of the sole when the foot is in the planar flexion, approximately at the junction of the anterior third and posterior two-thirds of the line connecting the base of the 2nd and 3rd toes and the heel.
On the occiput, 2.5 cun directly above the midpoint of the posterior hairline and 1.3 cun lateral to the midline, in the depression on the level of the upper border of the external occipital protuberance.
- Zhan zhuang:
Also called stake standing and pile standing. Stance exercise.
Number 7 of the of taijiquan. Elbow strike. The power comes from the whole body. The direct contact point is the elbow.
On the anterior lateral side of the leg, 3 cun below Dubi (ST 35), one finger breadth (middle finger) from the anterior crest of the tibia.